Institute for the Bio-Cultural Study of Religion

Exploring the Nexus of Culture, Mind & Religion

Visit IBCSR's public outreach site for the latest news on research in the scientific study of religion.

IBCSR Research Review is a free email newsletter surveying recent work in the scientific study of religion.

emr sq80Get instant feedback on your spirituality and contribute to scientific research at Exploring My Religion.org.

Religion, Brain & Behavior is the flagship journal in the bio-cultural study of religion, discounted in an IBCSR membership.

Membership benefits include a discounted journal subscription and online journal access. Join IBCSR today!

Bibliographies

Bibliography on the Scientific Study of the Left-Right Ideological Spectrum in Politics, Religion, and Morality

This bibliography contains important resources from a wide variety of disciplines that have something to offer to the scientific study of the left-right ideological spectrum in politics, religion, and morality. It is not complete but it is extremely useful nonetheless.

Categories

Demographics - USA

Demographics - International

Empirical Psychology and Cognitive Science on Politics

Empirical Psychology and Cognitive Science on Religion

Morality

History, Sociology, Political Science

 

Demographics – USA

Religion and Politics Survey.  2000. Available from http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/RELPOL2000_CB.asp.

Religion and Diversity Survey.  2002-3. Available from http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/DIVERSTY_CB.asp.

America's Evangelicals.  2004. Available from http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/EVANGEL_CB.asp.

Faith and Family in America.  2005. Available from http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/FAITHFAM_CB.asp.

Baylor University Surveys of Religion.  Ongoing. Available from http://isreligion.org/research/surveysofreligion/.

Data Archive.  Ongoing. Available from http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Browse.asp.

General Social Survey.  Ongoing. Available from http://www.norc.org/GSS+Website/Data+Analysis/.

Surveys.  Ongoing. Available from http://pewforum.org/surveys/.

Topics.  Ongoing. Available from http://barna.org/.

Stone, Howard W. 1989. Liberals and conservatives: Differences in demographic characteristics, interests, and service orientation among those entering ministry. Journal of Psychology and Christianity 8 (3):24.

Demographics – International

International Social Survey Program:  Religion II.  1998. Available from http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/ISSPRG_CB.asp.

Special issue on Pro-Democratic Values in Cross-National Perspective. 2002. International Journal of Sociology 32:1-108.

Cross-National Data:  Religion Indexes, Religious Adherents, and Other Data.  2003-7. Available from http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/INTL2003_CB.asp.

Findings.  2006. Available from http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/.

Jowell, Roger, Lindsay Brook, and Lizanne Dowds. 1993. International Social Attitudes: The 10th BSA Report. Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing.

Tos, Niko, Peter Mohler, and Brina Malnar. 1999. Modern Society and Values. Ljubljana: FSS, University of Ljubljana.

Empirical Psychology & Cognitive Science on Politics

Adorno, Theodor W. 1982. The Authoritarian personality. New York: Norton.

Aherling, R.F. 1987. Need for cognition, attitudes, and the 1984 Presidential election. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 100–102 .

Amodio, David, John Jost, Sarah Master, and Cindy Yee. 2007. Neurocognitive correlates of liberalism and conservatism. Nature Neuroscience 10 (10):1246-7.

Boysen, G.A., & Vogel, D.L. 2008. Education and mental health stigma: The effects of attribution, biased assimilation, and attitude polarization. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(5), 447-470.

Cacioppo, J.T., & Petty, R.E. 1982. The need for cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 116–131.

Cacioppo, J.T., Petty, R.E., & Kao, C.F. 1984. The efficient assessment of need for cognition. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 306–307.

Cacioppo, J.T., Petty, R.E., & Morris, K.J. 1983. Effects of need for cognition on message evaluation, recall, and persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 805–818.

Cacioppo, J.T., Petty, R.E., Kao, C.F., & Rodriguez, R. 1986. Central and peripheral routes to persuasion: An individual difference perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1032–1043.

Carney, Dana R., John T. Jost, Samuel D. Gosling, and Jeff Potter. 2008. The secret lives of liberals and conservatives: Personality profiles, interaction styles, and the things they leave behind. Political Psychology 29 (6):807.

Chirumbolo, Antonio, Alessandra Areni, and Gilda Sensales. 2004. Need for cognitive closure and politics: Voting, political attitudes and attributional style. International Journal of Psychology 39 (4):245.

Crowson, H, S Thoma, and N Hestevold. 2005. Is political conservatism synonymous with authoritarianism? Journal of Social Psychology 145 (5):571-92.

De Dreu, C.K.W., & van Knippenberg, D. 2005. The possessive self as a barrier to conflict resolution: Effects of mere ownership, process accountability, and self-concept clarity on competitive cognitions and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(3), 345-357.

de St. Aubin, E. 1996. Personal ideology polarity: Its emotional foundation and its manifestation in individual value systems, religiosity, political orientation, and assumptions concerning human nature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71:152-165.

Di Palma, G., and H. McClosky. 1971. Personality and conformity: The learning of political attitudes. In The Source Book for the Study of Personality and Politics, edited by F. I. Greenstein and M. Lerner. Chicago: Markham.

Emler, Nicholas, and Kerry Stace. 1999. What does principled versus conventional moral reasoning convey to others about the politics and psychology of the reasoner? European Journal of Social Psychology 29 (4):455-468.

Emler, Nicholas. 2003. Morality and political orientations: An analysis of their relationship. European Review of Social Psychology 13:259 - 291.

Eysenck, H. J. 1975. The structure of social attitudes. British Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology 14 (4):323.

Fibert, Zigi, and William Harris Ressler. 1998. Intolerance of ambiguity and political orientation among Israeli university students. Journal of Social Psychology 138 (1):33.

Fishkin, James, Kenneth Keniston, and Catherine McKinnon. 1973. Moral reasoning and political ideology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 27 (1):109-119.

Flay, B.R. (1978). Catastrophe theory in social psychology: Some applications to attitudes and social behavior. Behavioral Science, 23, 335–350.

Fleishman, John A. 1988. Attitude organization in the general public: Evidence for a bidimensional structure. Social Forces 67 (1):159.

Fowler, James H., and Darren Schreiber. 2008. Biology, Politics, and the Emerging Science of Human Nature. Science 322 (5903):912-914.

Frey, Rosemary Ann, and Lawrence Alfred Powell. 2005. Beyond Left-Right Ideology in the Study of Justice Perception: Interdependent and Independent Distributive Worldviews in Jamaica and New Zealand. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 36 (1):117-146.

Graham, Jesse, Jonathan Haidt, and Brian A. Nosek. 2009. Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96 (5):1029.

Greenberg, Jay R., Tom Pyszczynski, and Sheldon Solomon. 1986. The causes and consequences of the need for self-esteem: A terror management theory. In Public Self and Private Self, edited by R. F. Baumeister. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Greenberg, Jeff, and Eva Jonas. 2003. Psychological motives and political orientation--The left, the right, and the rigid: Comment on Jost et al. (2003). Psychological Bulletin 129 (3):376.

Harton, H.C., & Latané, B. 1997. Information and thought induced polarization: The mediating role of involvement in making attitudes extreme. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12, 271–299.

Heppner, P.P., Reeder, B., & Larson, L.M. 1983. Cognitive variables associated with personal problem-solving appraisal: Implications for counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 30, 537–545.

Jost, J, C Federico, and J Napier. 2009. Political Ideology:  its structure, functions, and elective affinities. Annual Review of Psychology 60:307-37.

Jost, John T. 2006. The end of the end of ideology. American Psychologist 61 (7):651.

Jost, John T. 2007. Coda--After 'The end of the end of ideology.'. American Psychologist 62 (9):1077.

Jost, John T., Brian A. Nosek, and Samuel D. Gosling. 2008. Ideology: Its resurgence in social, personality, and political psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science 3 (2):126.

Jost, John T., Christopher M. Federico, and Jaime L. Napier. 2009. Political ideology: Its structure, functions, and elective affinities. Annual Review of Psychology 60:307.

Jost, John T., Jaime L. Napier, Hulda Thorisdottir, Samuel D. Gosling, Tibor P. Palfai, and Brian Ostafin. 2007. Are Needs to Manage Uncertainty and Threat Associated With Political Conservatism or Ideological Extremity? Pers Soc Psychol Bull 33 (7):989-1007.

Kemmelmeier, Markus. 2007. Political Conservatism, Rigidity, and Dogmatism in American Foreign Policy Officials: The 1966 Mennis Data. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied 141 (1):77.

Kerlinger, Fred N. 1967. Social Attitudes and their Criterial Referents: A Structural Theory. Psychological Review 74 (2):110.

Kerlinger, Fred N. 1984. Liberalism and conservatism : the nature and structure of social attitudes, Basic studies in human behavior. Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum.

Kerr, Willard A. 1944. Correlates of politico-economic liberalism-conservatism. Journal of Social Psychology 20:61.

Kerr, Willard A. 1946. Tulane factors of liberalism-conservatism, Tulane factors of liberalism-conservatism. Oxford England: Psychometric Affiliates.

Kerr, Willard A. 1952. Untangling the liberalism-conservatism continuum. Journal of Social Psychology 35:111.

Kruglanski, Arie W., Donna M. Webster, and Adena Klem. 1993. Motivated resistance and openness to persuasion in the presence or absence of prior information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65 (5):861.

Kuhn, D., & Lao, J. 1996. Effects of evidence on attitudes: Is polarization the norm? Psychological Science, 7, 115–120.

Lange, R., & Houran, J. 2000. Modeling Maher’s attribution theory of delusions as a cusp catastrophe. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 4(3), 235-254.

Latané, B., & Nowak, A. 1994. Attitudes as catastrophes: From dimensions to categories with increasing involvement. In R.R. Vallacher & A. Nowak (Eds.), Dynamical systems in social psychology (pp. 219–249). San Diego: Academic Press.

Leone, C. 1994. Opportunity for thought and differences in the need for cognition: A person by situation analysis of self-generated attitude change. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 571–574.

Leone, C., & Ensley, E. 1986. Self-generated attitude change: A person by situation analysis of attitude polarization and attenuation. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 434–446.

Leshowitz, B., DiCerbo, K.E., & Okun, M.A. (2002). Effects of instruction in methodological reasoning on information evaluation. Teaching of Psychology, 29(1), 5-10.

Liberman, A., & Chaiken, S. 1996. The direct effect of personal relevance on attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 269–279.

Mehrabian, Albert. 1996. Relations among political attitudes, personality, and psychopathology assessed with new measures of libertarianism and conservatism. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 18 (4):469.

Oxley, Douglas R., Kevin B. Smith, John R. Alford, Matthew V. Hibbing, Jennifer L. Miller, Mario Scalora, Peter K. Hatemi, and John R. Hibbing. 2008. Political Attitudes Vary with Physiological Traits. Science 321 (5896):1667-1670.

Rokeach, Milton. 1960. The open and closed mind; investigations into the nature of belief systems and personality systems. New York,: Basic Books.

Sadler, O., & Tesser, A. 1973. Some effects of salience and time upon interpersonal hostility and attraction during social interaction. Sociometry, 36, 99–112.

Sadowski, C. J., & Cogburn, H.E. 1997. Need for cognition in the big-five factor structure. The Journal of Psychology, 131, 307-312.

Sadowski, C.J., & Gulgoz, S. 1992. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the need for cognition scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 74, 610.

Sidanius, James. 1985. Cognitive functioning and sociopolitical ideology revisited. Political Psychology 6 (4):637.

Sidanius, Jim, and Bo Ekehammar. 1976. Cognitive functioning and socio-political ideology: A multidimensional and individualized analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 17 (3):205.

Sidanius, Jim, Felicia Pratto, and Lawrence Bobo. 1996. Racism, conservatism, Affirmative Action, and intellectual sophistication: A matter of principled conservatism or group dominance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70 (3):476.

Sidanius, Jim. 1978. Cognitive functioning and socio-politico ideology: An exploratory study. Perceptual and Motor Skills 46 (2):515.

Tesser, A. 1978. Self-generated attitude change. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 289–338). New York: Academic Press.

Tesser, A., & Conlee, M.C. 1975. Some effects of time and thought on attitude polarization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 262–270.

Tesser, A., & Cowan, C.L. 1975. Thought and number of cognitions as determinants of attitude change. Social Behavior and Personality, 3, 165–173.

Tesser, A., & Cowan, C.L. 1977. Some attitudinal and cognitive consequences of thought. Journal of Research in Personality, 11, 216–226.

Tesser, A., & Paulhus, D.L. 1976. Toward a causal model of love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1095–1105.

Tetlock, Philip E. 1983. Cognitive style and political ideology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45 (1):118-126.

Thorisdottir, Hulda, John T. Jost, Ido Liviatan, and Patrick E. Shrout. 2007. Psychological needs and values underlying left-right political orientation: Cross-national evidence from Eastern and Western Europe. Public Opinion Quarterly 71 (2):175.

Tomkins, S. S. 1963. Left and right: A basic dimension of ideology and personality. In The Study of Lives, edited by R. W. White. Chicago: Atherton.

Van Hiel, Alaín, and Ivan Mervielde. 2003. The Measurement of Cognitive Complexity and Its Relationship With Political Extremism. Political Psychology 24 (4):781.

Van Hiel, Alain, Malgorzata Kossowska, and Ivan Mervielde. 2000. The relationship between Openness to Experience and political ideology. Personality and Individual Differences 28 (4):741.

Wilson, Glenn D. 1973. The Psychology of conservatism. London, New York,: Academic Press.

Wilson, Glenn D., and John R. Patterson. 1968. A new measure of conservatism. British Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology 7 (4):264.

Zeeman, E.C. 1976. Catastrophe theory. Scientific American, 234, 65-83.

Zeeman, E.C. 1977. Catastrophe theory: Selected papers, 1972-1977. Oxford, England: Addison-Wesley.

Empirical Psychology & Cognitive Science on Religion

Allport, Gordon W., and J. Michael Ross. 1967. Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5 (4):432.

Beck, Richard. 2006. Defensive versus existential religion: Is religious defensiveness predictive of worldview defense? Journal of Psychology & Theology 34 (2):143.

Cohen, Adam B., Ariel Malka, Eric D. Hill, Felix Thoemmes, Peter C. Hill, and Jill M. Sundie. 2009. Race as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Religiosity and Political Alignment. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 35 (3):271-282.

de St. Aubin, E. 1996. Personal ideology polarity: Its emotional foundation and its manifestation in individual value systems, religiosity, political orientation, and assumptions concerning human nature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71:152-165.

D'Onofrio, Brian, Lindon Eaves, Lenn Murrelle, Hermine Maes, and Bernard Spilka. 1999. Understanding Biological and Social Influences on Religious Affiliation, Attitudes, and Behaviors: A Behavior Genetic Perspective. Journal of Personality 67 (6):953-984.

Haidt, Jonathan. 2009. Moral Psychology and the Misunderstanding of Religion. In The Believing Primate, edited by J. Schloss and M. Murray. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kupst, Mary J. 1972. Religious liberalism-conservatism and psychological health in a study of the Roman Catholic priesthood, Dissertation Abstracts International, Loyola University, US.

McAdams, Dan P., and Michelle Albaugh. 2008. What if there were no God? Politically conservative and liberal Christians imagine their lives without faith. Journal of Research in Personality 42 (6):1668-1672.

Pancer, Mark, Lynne Jackson, Bruce Hunsberger, Michael Pratt, and James Lea. 1995. Religious Orthodoxy and the Complexity of Thought about Religious and Nonreligious Issues. Journal of Personality 63 (2):213-232.

Stewart, Robert A., and Alan C. Webster. 1970. Scale for theological conservatism, and its personality correlates. Perceptual and Motor Skills 30 (3):867.

Wahrman, Israel S. 1981. The relationship of dogmatism, religious affiliation, and moral judgment development. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied 108 (2):151.

Waller, Niels, Brian Kojetin, Thomas Bouchard Jr, David Lykken, and Auke Tellegen. 1990. Genetic and environmental influences on religious interests, attitudes, and values:  A Study of Twins Reared Apart and Together. Psychological Science 1 (2):138-142.

Morality

Emler, Nicholas. 2003. Morality and political orientations: An analysis of their relationship. European Review of Social Psychology 13:259 - 291.

Emler, Nicholas, and Kerry Stace. 1999. What does principled versus conventional moral reasoning convey to others about the politics and psychology of the reasoner? European Journal of Social Psychology 29 (4):455-468.

Fishkin, James, Kenneth Keniston, and Catherine McKinnon. 1973. Moral reasoning and political ideology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 27 (1):109-119.

Flanagan, Owen, and R.A. Williams. 2009. What Does the Modularity of Morals Have to Do with Ethics? The University of Tokyo Center for Philosophy 2009 [cited May 17 2009]. Available from http://utcp.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/events/pdf/048_Flanagan_Owen_3rd_BESETO.pdf.

Frey, Rosemary Ann, and Lawrence Alfred Powell. 2005. Beyond Left-Right Ideology in the Study of Justice Perception: Interdependent and Independent Distributive Worldviews in Jamaica and New Zealand. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 36 (1):117-146.

Graham, Jesse, Jonathan Haidt, and Brian A. Nosek. 2009. Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96 (5):1029.

Haidt, Jonathan. 2007. The New Synthesis in Moral Psychology. Science 316 (5827):998-1002.

———. 2008. Morality. Perspectives on Psychological Science 3 (1):65.

———. 2009. Moral Psychology and the Misunderstanding of Religion. In The Believing Primate, edited by J. Schloss and M. Murray. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Haidt, Jonathan, and Jesse Graham. 2009. Planet of the Durkheimians, Where Community, Authority, and Sacredness are Foundations of Morality. In Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification, edited by J. Jost, A. Kay and H. Thorisdottir. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Haidt, Jonathan, and Matthew A. Hersh. 2001. Sexual morality: The cultures and emotions of conservatives and liberals. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 31 (1):191.

Haidt, Jonathan, and Craig Joseph. 2008. The Moral Mind. In The Innate Mind, edited by P. Carruthers, S. Laurence and S. Stich. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Haidt, Jonathan & Jesse, Graham. 2007. When Morality Opposes Justice: Conservatives Have Moral Intuitions that LIberals may not Recognize. Social Justice Research 20 (1):98-116.

Hauser, Marc D. 2006. Moral minds : how nature designed our universal sense of right and wrong. 1st ed. New York: Ecco.

Inbar, Yoel, David A. Pizarro, and Paul Bloom. 2009. Conservatives are more easily disgusted than liberals. Cognition & Emotion 23 (4):714 - 725.

Jensen, Lene Arnett. 1998. Moral Divisions within Countries between Orthodoxy and Progressivism: India and the United States. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 37 (1):90-107.

Pratto, Felicia, Jim Sidanius, Lisa Stallworth, and Bertram Malle. 1994. Social dominance orientation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67 (4):741-63.

Wahrman, Israel S. 1981. The relationship of dogmatism, religious affiliation, and moral judgment development. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied 108 (2):151.

History, Sociology, Political Science

Altemeyer, Bob. 1988. Enemies of freedom : understanding right-wing authoritarianism. 1st ed, Jossey-Bass social and behavioral science series. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Ammerman, Nancy T. 2003. Religious Identities and Religious Institutions. In Handbook of the Sociology of Religion, edited by M. Dillon. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Argow, Waldemar. 1950. What Do Religious Liberals Believe? Yellow Springs, OH: Antioch Press.

Aristotle. Ethics, Bk I  350 BCE. Available from http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.html.

Ball, Terence, and Richard Dagger. 2008. Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal. 7th ed: Longman.

———. 2009. Ideas and Ideologies:  A Reader. 7th ed: Longman.

Bellamy, Edward. 2003. Looking backward, 2000-1887, Cork Hill classics. Indianapolis: Cork Hill Press. Original edition, 1888.

Bensko, Nora L., Silvia Sara Canetto, Judith A. Sugar, and Wayne Viney. 1995. Liberal or conservative? Gender, identity, and perception of historical religious positions. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied 129 (6):629.

Berger, Peter L., and Thomas Luckmann. 1966. The social construction of reality; a treatise in the sociology of knowledge. 1st ed. Garden City, N.Y.,: Doubleday.

Brooke, John Hedley. 1991. Ch. VII:  Visions of the Past. In Science and Religion, edited by J. H. Brooke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brooks, Arthur C. 2006. Who really cares? The surprising truth about compassionate conservatism. New York, NY, US: Basic Books.

Burke, Edmund, and Thomas Paine. 1989. Two classics of the French Revolution. New York: Anchor Books.

Cerulo, Karen A. 2002. Culture in mind : toward a sociology of culture and cognition. New York: Routledge.

Collins, Randall. 1993. Liberals and Conservatives, Religious and Political : A Conjuncture of Modern History. Sociology of Religion 54 (2):127.

Converse, P. 1964. The nature of belief systems in mass public. In Ideology and Discontent, edited by D. Apter. New York: Free Press.

DiMaggio, Paul. 1997. Culture and Cognition. Annual Review of Sociology 23 (263-287).

Eagleton, Terry. 1991. Ideology : an introduction. London ; New York: Verso.

Emler, Nicholas. 2003. Morality and political orientations: An analysis of their relationship. European Review of Social Psychology 13:259 - 291.

Eysenck, H. J. 1944. General social attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology 19:207.

Feather, N. T. 1984. Protestant Ethic, conservatism, and values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46 (5):1132.

Ferguson, L. W. 1939. Primary social attitudes. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied 8:217.

Fiorina, Morris P., Samuel J. Abrams, and Jeremy Pope. 2005. Culture war?: the myth of a polarized America, Great questions in politics series. New York: Pearson Longman.

Fleming, Bruce. 2006. Why Liberals and Conservatives Clash. New York: Routledge.

Friedman, Jeffrey. 2006. Democratic competence in normative and positive theory:  Neglected implications of "the nature of belief systems in mass publics". Critical Review 18 (1):1-43.

Gerring, J. 1997. Ideology: A definitional analysis. Political Research Quarterly 50 (4):957-994.

Giddens, Anthony. 1991. Modernity and self-identity : self and society in the late modern age. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Glock, Charles Y., and Rodney Stark. 1965. Religion and society in tension. Chicago,: Rand McNally.

From Culture War to Difficult Dialogue. 1.

Hobbes, Thomas. 1996. Leviathan. Rev. student ed, Cambridge texts in the history of political thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hunter, James Davison. 1991. Culture wars: the struggle to define America. [New York]: BasicBooks.

Inglehart, Ronald. Inglehart-Welzel Cultural Map of the World  1997. Available from http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/.

King, Marthin Luther. Letter From a Birmingham Jail  1963. Available from http://www.mlkonline.net/jail.html.

Kirkpatrick, C. 1949. Religion and Humanitarianism:  a study of institutional implications. Psychological Monograph 63 (9).

Knight, Kathleen. 1999. Liberalism and conservatism. In Measures of political attitudes., edited by J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver and L. S. Wrightsman. San Diego, CA US: Academic Press.

Layman, Geoffrey C. 1999. "Culture wars" in the American party system - Religious and cultural change among partisan activists since 1972. American Politics Quarterly 27 (1):89-121.

———. 2001. The great divide: religious and cultural conflict in American party politics, Power, conflict and democracy. New York: Columbia University Press.

Layman, Geoffrey C., and Edward G. Carmines. 1997. Cultural conflict in American politics: Religious traditionalism, postmaterialism, and U.S. Journal of Politics 59 (3):751.

Layman, G. C., and J. C. Green. 2006. Wars and rumours of wars: The contexts of cultural conflict in American political behaviour. British Journal Of Political Science 36:61-89.

Le Bon, G., and B. Miall. 1913. The Psychology of Revolution: Unwin: Leipzig.

Locke, John. 1988. Two treatises of government. Student ed, Cambridge texts in the history of political thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Original edition, 1689.

Madison, James. Federalist #10  1787. Available from http://www.foundingfathers.info/federalistpapers/fed10.htm.

Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty  1859. Available from http://www.serendipity.li/jsmill/on_lib.html.

Mitchell, Brian. 2007. Eight Ways to Run the Country. New York: Praeger.

Plato. The Republic, Books II-IX  360 BCE. Available from http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.html.

Roberts, Jon. 1999. Darwinism, American Protestant Thinkers, and the Puzzle of Motivation. In Disseminating Darwinisim, edited by R. Numbers and J. Stenhouse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rokeach, M. 1973. The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press.

Ryan, Leah. 2005. Review of Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think. Cognitive Linguistics 16 (4):753.

Signorelli, Anthony. 2006. Call to Liberty:  Bridging the Divide Between Liberals and Conservatives. Minneapolis: Scarletta Press.

Smelser, Neil J., and Jeffrey C. Alexander. 1999. Diversity and its discontents: cultural conflict and common ground in contemporary American society. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Stark, Rodney, Charles Y. Glock, and California. University. Survey Research Center. 1968. Patterns of religious commitment. Berkeley,: University of California Press.

Sugar, Judith A., Wayne Viney, and Janel Rohe. 1992. A comparison of contemporary and historical conservatism. Journal of General Psychology 119 (1):89.

Sumner, William Graham. 1972. What social classes owe to each other, The Right wing individualist tradition in America. New York: Arno Press. Original edition, 1883.

Tocqueville, Alexis de. 2003. Democracy in America and Two essays on America, Penguin classics. London: Penguin. Original edition, 1835.

Welch, Claude. 1996. Dispelling Some Myths about the Split Between Theology and Science in the Nineteenth Century. In Religion and Science, edited by M. Richardson and W. Wildman. New York: Routledge.

Welzer, Christian. A Human Developmental View on Value Change  2006. Available from http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/.

Wildman, Wesley J., and Stephen Chapin Garner. 2009. Found in the middle! : theology and ethics for Christians who are both liberal and evangelical. Herndon, VA: Alban Institute.

———. 2009. Lost in the middle? : claiming an inclusive faith for moderate Christians who are both liberal and evangelical. Herndon, Va.: Alban Institute.

Wuthnow, Robert. 1988. The restructuring of American religion : society and faith since World War II, Studies in church and state. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Wuthnow, Robert, and Matthew P. Lawson. 1994. Sources of Christian fundamentalism in the United States

Sources of Christian fundamentalism in the United States. In Accounting for fundamentalisms. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Pr.